Marriage In 1944, Princess Galyani Vadhana renounced her royal order of precedence in order to marry Colonel Aram Rattanakul Serireongrit (24 August 1920 - 3 February 1982), the son of General Luang Serireongrit (Charoon Ratanakul Serireongrit), a former Army commander-in-chief around the time of World War II. They are the parents of the only daughter, Thanpuying Dasna Valaya Ratanakul Serireungriddhi (later Sorasongkram) (born in 1945 in Switzerland). This marriage ended in divorce. In 1950, when the current King ascended to the throne, he reinstated her royal order of precedence. In 1969, The Princess then married HH Prince Varananda Dhavaj (19 August 1922 - 15 September 1990), son of Prince Chudadhuj Dharadilok, Prince of Bejraburna and Mom Ravi Kayananda. They had no children.
Prestigious royal title On the occasion of the sixth circle (72nd) birthday anniversary of Princess Galyani Vadhana on 6 May 1995, her brother, King Bhumibol gave her the noble title "Krom Luang Naradhiwas Rajanagarindra" (loosely translated "Princess of Narathiwat"), making her the only female member of the Chakri Royal Family in the reign of King Rama IX to have been bestowed this title. In announcing the honored title, The King said "the Princess, who was his only sister, had shared the joys and sorrows of life since their early years and was the most highly respected in that she had always given him support. Furthermore, it is a well-known fact that she had been steadfast in her devotion to the King in order that He would enjoy grace and glory." She had represented The King to carry out various royal works and had always taken good care of their mother, which was a great relief to him.
Royal projects Under the princess' royal patronage, projects included the traditional Thai arts, education, sports, social welfare, etc. She was president and honorary president of various organisations and foundations, including the Cardiac Children’s Foundation, the Princess Mother’s Charity Fund, the Autistic Foundation of Thailand. She created her own foundation for funding the studies of gifted young musicians. She was a patron of various classical music foundations. With her trips, she always gathered important and useful information which was shown in the Royal news, giving knowledge to people. She also wrote books, poetry, and spoke French. She traveled widely within Thailand and abroad to represent the royal family and her country on missions.
Health issues The princess was admitted Siriraj Hospital in June 2007, suffering from abdominal pains. Doctors found she had cancer, and she remained in the hospital for treatment. In October 2007, doctors reported the princess had suffered an infarction on the left side of her brain as a result of occlusion of a cerebral artery. At the same time in October, her brother, King Bhumibol Adulyadej was treated at Siriraj after he experienced weakness on his right side; doctors later found out through scans that he had a blood shortage to his brain.He was admitted on October 13 and discharged on November 7. After leaving Siriraj, the monarch has visited his sister at the hospital on an almost daily basis. On December 14, the Royal Household Bureau released its 25th statement about the princess' health, saying she was feeling increasingly tired and was becoming less responsive.
Books and writing Princess Galyani Vadhana liked reading and writing books since she was young. While studying Prathom 1 to Prathom 3, she read as many Thai language books as she could find. At that time, however, children’s books in Thai were rare, so she often read the newspaper. However, she remembered that she had once read a story, which she later found again in the original French while studying in Switzerland, the 1878 novel Sans Famille. During her secondary study, especially while at Geneva, Switzerland, she read much literature. She found that reading developed her French language skills. Later, when she was a French teacher at Thammasat University, she read many books on linguistics. In addition, she also studied art, culture, archaeology, and history for many years. When she planned to visit a foreign country, she would first read many books and documents on that country. When she was nine, she published a journal called ‘Ruaen Rom’ with her friends at Srapathum Palace, containing articles she wrote. Her mother supported her in reading and writing English. On September 10, 1932, she published a story she wrote. In addition, she wrote eleven poems about the royal family, translated three books, wrote ten tourist guide books, and an academic article.
Photography Princess Galyani Vadhana was interested in photography, which she had learned to take not only for recalling, but also for art and academic purposes. When she visited important places either in-house or abroad, she always took photographs of those she found interesting. Those photographs were useful for her travel writings.
Music Princess Galyani Vadhana learned about many fields of western art. She was interested in all types of music and drama, especially classical music from master composers. She listened to these music since she studied at Switzerland. She'd ever learned piano at home with her younger brothers, but she'd just learned for not long time because she had very little time to practise. While she did homework, she liked to listen to songs from a radio, made she knew classical music and like it for all the time. In 2004, concerned about the lack of interest in promotion classical music in both the governmental and private sectors, Her Royal Highness established a Fund for Classical Music Promotion of which she became President. The fund supported classical music and related activities, and provided assistance to Thai musicians for studying, competitions, and concerts both in domestically and internationally. She also supported the Bangkok Symphony Orchestra and the Chulalongkorn University Symphony Orchestra, and was the patron of the Bangkok Opera. Her presence in the classical music scene was ubiquitous.
Education Princess Galyani Vadhana was interested in education not only for university education. She realized that the primary education is very important for population quality development. From her experience in teaching French language for a long time, she realized problem of uncontinuous French language subject for Mattayom and university education. In 1977 She found L'Association Thailandaise des Professeurs de Francais (The Association of Thai Professors Teaching French Language) to be the center for meeting in exchanging experience and improvement teaching French language in Mattayom and university classes. She took a position of the president of the association between 1977 and 1981, then she was the honorary president along her life. Her assistance to the association was in many ways, included assistance in publishing journals to distribute the modern knowledge, writing her own articles in journals, and supporting teachers to meeting in seminar, research abroad and study in higher education. With her working, teaching and research of French language in Thailand had been developed continuously. She was conferred honorary degree of doctor in many branches, and also conferred honor from many foreign governments and international organizations, included UNESCO.
Culture, Archaeology, and History Princess Galyani Vadhana was interested in history and archaeology for a long time, because she thought these fields are the bases of other subjects, and she believed in methodology of reasoning to support ideas in history field. She had always said that her thoughts weren't correct all the time, and she would accept new data if it had reason and evidences. During the duties, she was interested in many important places, which she then visited by herself. She also lead groups and associations to educational tours at many historic sites, and she advised fellow reporters to emphasize the information of the sites. For visiting historical sites, she didn't receive only the information from archaeologist's narration, but she'd researched about those sites before, and asked experts deeply and all-around. The topics she asked included sites restoration and excavation, and the impacts to people nearby during the operations.
On January 2, 2008, the Royal Household Bureau made an announcement that after the Princess' condition worsened on the night of Tuesday, January 1, 2008, she died at 2:54AM on Wednesday, January 2, 2008, at Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, aged 84. There was to be a mourning period of 100 days, starting from the day of her death. The Prime Minister announced that all government officials and agencies would wear black for 15 days while the cabinet would wear black for the full 100 days.
The 300 million baht (8.9 million dollars, £6.1m) funeral, is the first full royal funeral since 1996, when the king's mother Srinagarindra was cremated. It had been performed for only four royals in Bhumibol Adulyadej's 62-year reign. A rare glimpse of the pageantry of the House of Chakri, the royal funeral tradition dated back to Ayuthaya period is influenced by 1,000-year-old India's Hindu traditions that treat kings as incarnations or descendants of deities and Buddhism's merit-making ceremonies. The 6-day funeral ceremony and ritual officially started on FridayNovember 14, 2008, at the Grand Palace, and terminates on November 19 when Galyani's ashes will be transferred to a nearby temple. On Saturday, 3 processions (from the royal throne hall, where she had lain in state for 10 months) were composed of 3,294 soldiers, flanked by conch shell-blowers, drummers and musicians. Two of the processions involved Phra Yannamas Sam Lam Khan, an 18th century, seven metric ton palanquin carried by 60 men. The two-century-old sweet-smelling sandalwood golden teakurn hold Galyani's remains in upright position, on top of an elaborately decorated 14-ton golden carriage Phra Maha Phichai Ratcharot. Both dressed in white ceremonial dress, Maha Vajiralongkorn, Crown Prince of Thailand and Somchai Wongsawat, inter alia, took part in the procession, in Sanam Luang parade ground. In Uttaradit, black-dressed Thais flocked to the royally-sponsored Wat Klong Poh in the provincial sea to place 400,000 sandalwood flowers at the crematorium. At 10 pm Saturday, King Bhumibol Adulyadej and Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn will, with the help of a hydraulic tappet, set light to a 40m (130ft) high funeral pyre, modeled on Mount Meru. The $5.7m (£3.8m) temporary royal crematorium, a complex of pavilions, constructed on the Sanam Luang parade ground 7 months, had been lavishly decorated with flowers, garlands and carved banana stalks. After the cremation, the funeral buildings will be torn down, as reminders of a beloved royal's death. Galyani's spirit will then return home to Mount Meru, where all deities eternally live, per Hindu beliefs.
Les écrits les plus anciens relatifs aux yaourts sont attribués à Pline l'Ancien, celui-ci ayant remarqué que certaines tribus « barbares » savaient « épaissir le lait en une matière d’une agréable acidité ». On considère aujourd’hui la Bulgarie qui était jusqu’en 1878 sous la domination ottomane comme le pays inventeur du yaourt. Néanmoins certains estiment que le yaourt provient d’une région du Moyen-Orient qui est aujourd’hui l’Iran ou le Kurdistan. Les techniques traditionnelles encore utilisées dans cette région consistent à fermenter le lait par un va-et-vient de ce dernier dans un « sac » de peau de mouton voire de chèvre. Il existe des preuves de l’existence de produits laitiers fermentés dans un but alimentaire depuis au moins le IIIe millénaire av. J.-C.. Les premiers yaourts résultent probablement d’une fermentation spontanée, peut-être au contact des bactéries sauvages résidant à l’intérieur des sacs de peau de chèvre utilisés pour le transport du lait. Le yaourt fait sa première apparition en France grâce à François Ier qui, souffrant de problèmes digestifs, fait appel au sultan de Turquie qui lui envoie d’Istanbul un médecin qui le guérit en le soumettant à une cure de lait de brebis fermenté. À la fin du XIXe siècle, le bactériologiste russe Élie Metchnikoff, prix Nobel de biologie en 1908, s’interroge sur le lien attribuant au yaourt la longévité des montagnards du Caucase et des Balkans. Il découvre, en fait, les effets positifs du yaourt sur les désordres intestinaux des nourrissons
Le Sceau Impérial du Japon, littéralement « Noble insigne du chrysanthème utilisé depuis la période Kamakura par l'empereur du Japon et les membres de sa famille, est généralement considéré comme l'emblème national japonais, bien qu'il n'ait plus aucun statut officiel depuis la fin de la deuxième guerre mondiale. Il figure, par exemple, sur le passeport, les badges des membres de la Diète et daans les halls des ambassades. Il en existe trois variantes principales : à seize pétales doubles, insigne impérial par excellence, à seize pétale simples (passeports et badges) et à quatorze pétales simples (membres de la famille impériale).
Le premier à l'utiliser fut l'empereur Go-Toba (1180-1239). Moins respecté durant la période Edo que l'insigne du bakufu, il a pu à cette époque être emprunté par le peuple pour décorer des pâtisseries ou des objets bouddhistes. Au XIXe siècle, la restauration de Meiji en a strictement réglementé l'usage. Réservé à l'empereur et sa famille dès 1869, la forme à seize pétales doubles fut utilisée exclusivement par l'empereur à partir de 1871, les autres membres de la famille employant une variante à quatorze pétales simples. Les lieux saints du shintoïsme pouvaient en utiliser également une variante. Il figurait durant la deuxième guerre mondiale sur certains équipements de marine et d'infanterie. Depuis la seconde moitié du XXe siècle, son emploi n'est plus restreint à une catégorie spéciale de personnes ou d'instititions, mais il ne peut être enregistré comme logo commercial.
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